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Voters Roll Audit - Preliminary roll - 2005 General Elections
RW (Topper) Whitehead, Freezim Support Group
January 23, 2005

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1) Introduction
The roll being the cornerstone of the democratic "one person - one vote" system it is necessary for the roll to be accurate and up to date otherwise the democratic principal is negated from the very beginning of the electoral process. The results of the year 2000 General Elections and the year 2002 Presidential Elections indicated that there could be massive fraud and irregularities in the Zimbabwe Voters Roll which has prompted this investigative research and report. It must be made explicitly clear that from the onset the investigations have been extremely difficult to carryout because of obstruction and non cooperation from the Registrar General and his department1 who have custody of the nation's voters-roll and other population related data.

To do an effective analysis of the roll and electoral results it is necessary to have the data in electronic format (as is the form that the RG now keeps the data) so that computers can be programmed to eliminate the time consuming checks and crosschecks that are required in an analysis. With the RG's refusal to release the roll in such form and supported by obscure judgements2 from the Supreme Court it became necessary for the digitisation of the roll by electronic means, but first the paper copy had to be obtained.

It took nearly two years and countless requests to obtain a roll from the RG in spite of the fact that the Law is very specific in that the roll must be readily and freely available to any person.

This preliminary report reveals the initial findings that clearly indicate that the voters roll requires extensive repair prior to any democratic election at any level be undertaken and that it is the duty of the newly appointed Electoral Supervisory Commission to ensure that it is done.

2) Executive Summary

A copy of the roll was obtained in October 2004 from the Registrar General after the initial application had been made in April 2002.3

A summary of the roll was done4 that indicated incomprehensible voting registration patterns that are in direct conflict with the 2002 Census5 and highlighted in a report6 by F Matarise of the University of Zimbabwe.

Scanning and computer equipment was obtained and digitisation started in November 2004.

To date 7 constituencies have been digitised and 2 constituencies analysed.

The "sample" analysed to date is considered statistically representative by international standards. It is through detailed data and statistical analysis of these rolls that the following key findings are presented based on extrapolation:

Over 2 million of the 5,6 million names registered as voters are suspect. Removing these from the roll results in the recently completed delimitation report being highly suspect.

Deceased persons remaining on the roll extrapolated to over 800 000.
Over 300 000 duplicate names exist on the roll.
Over 900 000 names of people appearing on the roll where found to no longer reside at the registered address and as a consequence significantly effect the delimitation process.

The following table gives the extent of "damage" extrapolated from the sample analysed to date and that can be expected to be substantiated when the rest of the digitisation and analysis is completed.

Fact
Result / Damage – by Extrapolation
Voters roll NOT made public – contrary to Zimbabwe Law and SADC standards. A gross violation of electoral procedures in ANY part of the world or SADC region.
Deceased voters still recorded as voters 78% of returns received 800 000 deceased voters still on the roll thus inflating eligible voters and voter turnout
Duplicate Voters 300 000 duplicate voters on the roll.
Voters not known at this address – (NKATA) 900 000 voters Not known (NKATA)
Voters no longer at this address - (NLATA ) 300 000 voters country wide extrapolated from sample
Total Damage 2 300 000 voters

 

3) Methodology
On receipt of the roll from the RG there was a requirement to the effect that no copying of the roll was allowed which is in direct contradiction of the Electoral Act which allows for any person to "make a copy" or "take extracts from", consequently this requirement has been ignored.
  • A summary of the roll was made by counting the number of voters in each constituency and the results tabulated and compared with previous data from past elections.7
  • The roll as received was found to have been printed on plain white paper with very feint print (obviously the printer ribbons were not new ) We believe this to be a deliberate ploy by the RG to make OCR difficult.
  • The files received have been disassembled and the continuous computer paper "separated" and trimmed to fit the A3 size scanner.
  • Files have been scanned into Adobe.pdf files for reference and into .tiff files for OCR.
  • Scanning equipment consists of - Nashua Afico 1022 Copier / Scanner
  • An OCR (Optical Character Recognition ) routine is then run on the scanned images using OmniPage Professional Ver 14.0 and the image converted into an Excel spreadsheet.
  • Routines (macro) are then run within Excel to separate the Alpha Character from the ID No and then an ID No verification routine run to verify the validity of the ID.
  • The spreadsheet is then cleaned and imported into a SQ database specially designed to interrogate the data.
  • From the SQ database selected data is acquired and printed.
  • The printed forms are then used by volunteers to go "door to door" to physically verify the information extracted from the voters roll.
4) Capabilities
  The SQL dataBase that has been developed specifically for the Zimbabwe situation is capable of quickly and effectively searching and reporting on 25 million records each with 50 fields (the same information as given in the voters roll in addition to another 40 fields set aside for date of birth etc).
Once the voters roll is digitised it is then possible to :-
  • Search for names, ID No's, etc and give list.
  • Identify invalid ID No's
  • Identify duplicate ID No's across any specified roll.
  • Track migration of voters between different published rolls - ie between the Presidential voters Roll and the roll supplied in October 2004.
  • List "new voters" ie those who were not registered in a previous published roll
  • Sort ID No's by registration centre (Prefix) and (Prefix)
5) Findings
Constituencies digitised OCR'd = 7
Constituencies analysed = Harare North and UMP

Analysis - Audited Voters Roll Harare North - appendices

  May 2000 March 2002 Oct 2004 Delim 2004

Total Voters HN

46852
52178
48149
43064

Voters moved OUT of HN

   
99838
 

Numbers OUT of HN by Prefix

   
99839
 

Numbers OUT of HN by Suffix

   
998310
 

New voters by Suffix

   
436211
 

List of NEW voters by Ethnic / Rural group with % from area.12

Random check indicated case of DUPLICATE identification number with different name and constituency13

List of names sorted into Rural home of New voters – ie not registered in March 200214

List of NEW voters in the Harare North constituency since the presidential elections.15

List of voters moved OUT of Harare North sorted into Suffix – Rural home.16

List of voters from "door to door" survey with an anomaly of some sort.17

Details of "Door to door" survey

Area/Block/Ward Total Checked Errors % Error
Inst Agricultural Engineering - part of Block 60409
462
82
17.7%
Pomona Stone Quarry Block 110709
52
43
82.7%
Hatcliffe Extension Block 80409
2612
1773
67.9%
Hatcliffe One Block 20409
210
144
68.6%
Emerald Hill Block 110609
74
9
12.2%
Avonlea Block 80609
112
50
44.6%
Tynwald Westlea Block 11009
95
11
11.6%
Mabelreign Block 20509
71
11
15.5%
Marlborough Block 50609
180
18
10.0%
Mt Pleasant Block 80709
670
97
14.5%
Total - Door to door survey
4538
2238
49.3%

Note
49,3% of the persons registered as voters on the Harare North roll are NOT known at the address indicated.


UMP Constituency

The door to door exercise in the constituency of UMP has been considerably more difficult than Harare.
However from the printed sheets the team has managed to establish significant anomalies in the roll.

Analysis - Audit Voters Roll for UMP - appendices

  May 2000 March 2002 Oct 2004 Delim 2004

Total Voters UMP

44077 56734 58070 55249

Voters migrated INTO UMP

   
345918
 

List OUT of UMP by name

   
10119
 

New voters by name

   
964820
 

List of voters (723) with 00 Suffix – incorrectly classified.21

Random checks indicated case of DUPLICATE identification number with different name and constituency22

From the door to door survey the following has been established. One name appears 4 times in the UMP Voters Roll, and has 4 different identification numbers, two of European origin, yet the actual person is unknown to the Chipika family, in the Manyika Village and in the UMP Constituency

Name

ID No

Address

Chipika Maggie

15 82 424 N- 00

Manyika Village, Chief-Nyajina Murehwa

Chipika Maggie

47- 020483-V-47

Village Manyika, 2. Headman-Muskwe, Chief- Nyajina U

Chipika Maggie

47-056184-A-47

Manyika 2, Headman, Muskwe, Chief- Nyajina

Chipika Maggie

15 –082424- N-00

Manyika Village, Chief- Nyajima Murehwa

One name appears twice with two different identification numbers, one identification is of European origin, the address for the two identification numbers are from the same village, and yet the person is unknown in that village.

Name

ID No

Address

Kabudura Moses

47- 51705- G-00

Manyika School

Kabudura Moses

63-309467-M-47

Manyika 2 Village,Muswe, Headman-Nyajina-Chief-UMP

Names of two deceased persons appear in the UMP Voters Roll, each with two different identification numbers.

Name

ID No

Address

Sasa Monica

47-028852-R-00

Rukariro School UMP

Sasa Monica

47-027 645 –E-47

Village Takawira, Headman Chimhaga, Chief-Nyajina

Kadzinga Usayi

47-053162-Q-00

Kraal Nyamhuru, Chief- Nyajina UMP

Kadzinga Usayi

47 –53 162 Q 00

Kraal Nyamhuru, Chief- Nyajina UMP

Names with identification numbers, yet persons of these names are unknown in the Constituency. (Some of these people are supposed to have transferred into UMP, yet, they are unknown in the constituency.)

Name

ID

Address

Kativhu Chabvuta Titus

47-7830 R 00

Kraal Kagwidzi, Chief Nyajina. Headman Chimhaga, UMP

Mudzinganyma Cephas

47-89769 F 00

Rukariro School UMP

Nyamhuru Eunah

47-100959 T 00

Village-Nyamhuru, Mom Chimhaga Chief Nyajina UMP

Chari Alice

47- 558 M 00

Borera School PA Mutawatawa UMP

Chiunye Manatsi

5-10971 G 00

Tsiga Kraal, Chief-Chirinda Murehwa

Marange Medium

61-56073 W 00

Kraal Chiuzingo, Chief Nyajina Murehwa

Burire Grace

5-14702

Chief –Nyajina, Kraal-Dumbura UMP

Chaburuka Faith

75 331532 Z 75

Village- Chimugonono, Headman-Chiunze, Chief- Chitsungo

Mashonganyika Nyamauya

47-19936 A 00

Kraal- Kanotangudza, Chief- Nyajina Murewa

Musanhi Jannet

68-4423 A 00

Nyamhuru Village, Nyajina Chief

Note
There are 723 voters with 00 as a suffix in their ID No within UMP - this does NOT conform to the requirements of the registration Districts.

6) Conclusion
From the forgoing it is obvious that there are chronic errors and the roll is overstated by unrealistic proportions that cannot be ignored.

The Electoral Supervisory Commission under the chairmanship of Justice Chiweshe and members Sarah Kachingwe, Rev Jonathan, Vivian Ncube and Professor George Kahari are challenged to remedy the situation and call for a multi-party investigation into the state of the roll and to ensure that the roll in digital electronic format is released to ALL interested parties so that meaningful contributions can be submitted.

To substantiate this report 2 Volumes of appendixes - totalling over 1800 pages - containing the research data is to be read in conjunction.


1 Letters written to the Registrar general asking for access to the Voters Roll
2 Report on the Supreme Court Judgement by an Independent observer.
3 Applications for the roll
4 Summary of registered voters by Constituency
5 Census 2002 - Preliminary report
6 Report on the Age Distribution of Zimbabwe's population
7 October 2004 roll summary.
8 Voters no longer in the constituency since PVR
9 Number of voters moved out of the constituence sorted by Prefix - ie Registration center
10 Number of voters moved out of the constituence sorted by Prefix - ie Registration center
11 Voters not registered in March 2002 now in the Harare North Constituency - Sorted by Suffix
12 Ethnic / Rural grouping of NEW voters in Harare North
13 Same ID different name
14 List of names sorted into Rural home of New voters - ie not registered in March 2002
15 List of NEW voters in the Harare North constituency since the presidential elections.
16 List of voters moved OUT of Harare North sorted into Suffix - Rural home
17 List of voters from "Door to door" survey.
18 Migrated into UMP
19 List OUT of UMP by name
20 New voters in UMP since presidential by name
21 List of NEW voters with 00 Suffix - incorrectly classified.
22 Random checks indicated case of DUPLICATE identification number with different name and constituency

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